Deforestation affects not only the logged portion of the forest, but affects habitats in proximity to logged areas. This is due partly to edge effects, partly to the necessity for large areas of undisturbed forest for migration and feeding activities (animals) and reproduction (animals and plants, especially trees). For instance, 15,000 km2 per year were deforested in the Brazilian Amazon between 1978 and 1988, but the areas fragmented and degraded by this activity amounted to another 38,000 km2 per year (Skole and Tucker, 1993). In Paragominas state of Brazil, for the harvest of one commercially-valuable tree, thirty other trees of a diameter greater than 10 cm were destroyed, and the normal 80% to 90% canopy cover was reduced to less than 50% (Uhl, et al., 1997). In another study in Brazil, 150 trees were damaged severely by the extraction of six or seven timber trees (Uhl, 1994). Fires arising from the drier environment and debris remaining from logging damage much more forest, as well.