Forests serve as sources of fuel when no alternative energy source is available. This is a substantial cause of deforestation. In parts of Africa and in India, 60% – 90% of energy needs are supplied by wood (Robinson, 1988; Sponsel, Bailey and Headland, 1996). It is no surprise, given the burgeoning populations of these areas, that little forest remains. In many places, great swathes of trees have been cut to provide charcoal, as in Brazil. The volume usage of wood for fuel has been estimated as 1.12 m3 per capita per year in the former Indochina and 0.53 m3 in the Philippines (Palm, et al., 1986).

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