In Puerto Rico, primary forest has been reduced by 99%, but secondary forests and coffee plantations have reforested approximately 10-15% of the land area. Seven native bird species are now extinct (>11% of native bird fauna) but there are now more species of birds on Puerto Rico than previously. Many of these species have been introduced; they are birds of disturbed forests and so they do well. The forest appears to be undergoing succession to a climax forest, as some species typical of undisturbed forests have begun to increase in number (Lugo, 1988). Forest cover has increased to approximately 35% (Zimmerman, 2001).

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