Logging activities begin with the construction of roads to gain access to the timber. This itself consumes huge areas of forest – as much as 15% of the logging area may be cleared for roads. The intrusion of roads into forests can be devastating, as has been discussed elsewhere in this document. Roads open up forest interiors to pests and diseases, increase erosion and waterway sedimentation, and, most destructively, begin the chain reaction of incursions by farmers, ranchers, hunters, miners and land speculators.