©Greg Neise

©Greg Neise

©Greg Neise

©Greg Neise

English Name: None

Local Name: Sapo

Scientific Name: Bufo typhonius


Order: Anura

Range: Widespread in the Amazon Basin.

At least three different species of toads in the Iquitos region are grouped under this name, but these have not yet been recognized formally.

Males 40-67 mm, females 46-76 mm. The skin on the dorsum is roughened, with or without scattered tubercles or the neural spines of the vertebrae protruding through the skin on the back; the skin on the venter is granular; a diagonal row of conical tubercles extends from the back of the head to the groin. The snout is pointed, and the tympanum may be present or absent. The partoid glands are narrowly elliptical or triangular and confuent with the cranial crests. The dorsum varies from uniform reddish brown to tan with or without large or small dark brown spots or blotches. At least one variety tends to have a bold cream middorsal stripe. The venter is grayish tan to cream with or without cream spots or gray mottling. The iris is bronze with a greenish-gold ring around the pupil.


terre firme forest.

carnivorous: prey includes insects and and any other small creatures it can catch.

Life History:
All of these toads are diurnal on the forest floor, where their coloration and periphery of spines result in their mimicking dead leaves. All feed primarily on ants. At night they frequently climb onto low leaves to sleep. At least one species breeds in slow moving streams, where they deposit strings of small, pigmented eggs.

At the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo, this species is common and easily found in the upland forest along the Quebrada Blanco.